From Assyrian records dated between the 9th and 7th century B.C., we know that Ishmaelite tribes lived as nomads in Sinai and the Fertile Crescent. But none of these records include the name Ishmael. No inscription shows that they called any person by that name. This demonstrates to us that they didn’t know their lineage from Ishmael. Otherwise, they would certainly have been proud to be his descendants, and they would have recorded Ishmael in each subsequent generation, just as the Israelites recorded Isaac as part of their Israelite religious heritage in every ancient book they wrote.
Because Ishmael received no spiritual call from God, his only historical descendants were the twelve tribes which descended from his sons. In consequent generations, even his sons' descendents forgot about him, including his name, even though the time between Ishmael and these tribes was only about 1,200 years (btween the 7th and 9th century B.C.). Since this is the case for the true descendants of Ishmael, MUAHMMAD LIVED IN ARABIA, NOT YEMEN, Ishmael lived, conclude he descended from Ishmael who lived 2,000 years before him? THE KEDARITIES WERE IN ARABIA ( SEE EZIEKIEL AND JEREMIAH ETC). If the Ishmaelites themselves were not aware of their ancestry from Ishmael, who would have told the 21st ancestor of Mohammed that he was descended from Ishmael? THIS WAS BY ORAL AND WRITTEN ARABIC POETRY.
There is no proof that Mohammed’s ancestors, number 17 or number 21, ever claimed to be descendants from Ishmael. However the Prophet Muhammad's great grandfather Qussay traced his desent to Kedar one of the sons of Ishamel. There’s no written document before Mohammed that make such a claim. This is because the Arabs relied on oral reports and Oral poetry Even if such document were to have existed, still this ancestor would have no right to claim descendancy from a man who lived 2,000 years before him, without written documents in each generation to prove his case. (THEY DIDN'T HAVE WRITTEN DOCUMENTS, THEY HAD ORAL REPORTS ).
The first documented mention of Qedar is from a stele (c. 737 BC) of Tiglath-Pileser III, a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, that lists tribes from the southern parts of Mesopotamia that pay himtribute. To the Assyrians, the Qedarites were known as Qidri or qi-id-ri with other cuneiform inscriptions also using Qadri, Qidarri, Qidari and Qudari (Neo Babylonian).
Statements about the Qedarites in the annals of the Assyrian kings of Ashurbanipal and his son Esarhaddon indicate that the term Kedar was almost synonymous with Arabia. Dumah is referred to as Adummatu by the Assyrians, and the city is described by them as the seat of the Qedar confederation and the base of their cult.
Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD), who refers to the Cedrei and Cedareni ("Cedarenes") in the context of other Arabian tribes, placing their domain to the south of the Conchlei and adjacent to that of theNabataei, is thought to be referring to the Qedar. Jerome (c. 357–420 AD), also writing in Latin, transcribes Qedar as Cedar, and refers to it as a region. In one entry, he describes it as, "a region of the Saracens, who are called Ishmaelites in scripture"; in another, he writes it that is was a "once uninhabitable region across Saracen Arabia"; and in a third, he writes that it is a "deserted region of the Ishmaelites, whom they now call Saracens." According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Theodoret (c. 393 – c. 457) mentions that in his time, the Qedar lived near Babylon.
There are brief references to the Qedar in the writings of Western travellers to the Levant in the 19th century. Drawing on biblical motfis, comparisons are made between the Bedouins and the Qedar. For example, Albert Augustus Isaacs describes the imposing spectacle of a Bedouin encampment on a plain upon which, "the black tents of Kedar were spread far and wide." An earlier account by Charles Boileau Elliot describes the Arabs as falling into two main groups, Fellahs and Bedouins, and identifies the latter with Ishmael and the Qedar as follows:
[...] the Bedouins still retain the wandering habits of their father Ishmael; their 'hand is against every man, and every man's hand is against' them; the wild desert is their home; the ground their pallet and their canopy the sky; or, if luxurious their choicest place of sojourn is a little tent 'black as the tents of Kedar' their progenitor [...]
The descendants of Abraham and Hagar are called Ishmaelites, after Ishmael, their firstborn, and the Qedarites are named for his second son, Qedar. The Bible refers to both the Qedarites and Qedar frequently. Old Testament references include Genesis (25:13), Isaiah (21:16-17, 42:11, 60:7), Jeremiah (2:10, 49:28-33), Ezekiel (27:21), and Chronicles (1:29). Twice, Qedar is used to refer to the actual son of Ishmael, as in the books of Genesis and Chronicles, while remaining references are to his descendants, referring either to his most prominent North Arabian sons, or to the Arabs and Bedouins as a more general collective. The "tents of Kedar" equated with "the peace-hating Meshech" mentioned in the Book of Psalms(120:5) were likely a Qedarite sub-group.
In Canticles (1:5), the tents of the Qedarites are described as black: "Black I am, but beautiful, ye daughters of Jerusalem / As tents of Qedar, as tentcloth of Salam black." Their tents are said to be made of black goat hair. A tribe of Salam was located just south of the Nabateans inMadain Salih, and Knauf proposed that the Qedarites mentioned in this Masoretic text were in fact Nabataeans and played a crucial role in the spice trade in the 3rd century BC.
Biblical descriptions indicate there were two major types of Qedarites: nomads (Arabic: wabariya) living in tents and sedentary people (Arabic:ḥaḍariya) living in villages. Jeremiah describes them as "a nation at ease, that dwells securely" (49:31)  Isaiah recalls their warrior activities and skill with the bow. (21:16f)  Ezekiel associates, "Arabia and all the princes of Kedar," and indicates that they engaged in sheep/goat trading with thePhoenicians. The three books list the flocks of the Qedarites as including lambs, rams, goats and camels.