Monday, December 2, 2013

Adnan in Pre Islamic Literature and Times


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adnan (Arabicعدنان‎) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central-Western Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of southern and south eastern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.[1]


According to tradition, Adnan is the father of a group of the Ishmaelite Arabs who inhabited West and Northern Arabia. Adnan is believed by Arab genealogies to be the father of many Ishmaelitetribes along the Western coast of Arabia, Northern Arabia and Iraq.[2][3][4][5]
Many family trees have been presented for Adnan, which did not agree about the number of ancestors between Ishmael and Adnan but agreed perfectly about the names and number of the ancestors between Adnan and the Prophet Muhammad.[6][7]
The overwhelming majority of traditions and Muslim scholars state that Adnan is a descendant of Kedar the son of Ishmael,[8][9][10][11][12] except for Ibn Ishaq who claimed that Adnan was a descendant of Nebaioth,[13] this confusion of Ibn Ishaq can be due to the case of one of the descendants of Kedar was named "Nebaioth".[14]
Most of Muslim scholars refused any attempt to recite the ancestors between Adnan to Ishmael, and condemned some other scholars such as Ibn Ishaq for doing it.[15][16][17][18][19]

In Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

Adnan was mentioned in various Pre-Islamic poems, such as the Pre-Islamic poets: "Lubayb Ibn Rabi'a" and "Abbas Ibn Mirdas".[20]
Adnan has been viewed by Pre-Islamic Arabs as an honorable father among the fathers of Arab tribes, and they used this ancestry to boast against other Qahtani tribes who were a minority among the Adnanites.[21]
"Layla Bent Lukayz", a Pre-Islamic female poet, was captured by a Persian king and forced to marry him, so she composed a poem designated to other Arab tribes, asking for their help and reminding that she and them all belong to Adnan, which makes it a duty for them to rescue her.[22]
In other poems such as the ones composed by the Pre-Islamic poet "Qumma'a Ibn Ilias", it appears that Arabs considered it as a "Honor" to be a descendant of Adnan, and for some reason they appear to have been proud of it.[23]

In North Arabian Inscriptions[edit]

The name of Adnan was found many times in various Thamudic inscriptions, but it was only mentioned as a persom without telling so much about him. While in some Nabataean inscriptions, Adnan seem to have holding some kind of importance or veneration, so that some of Nabataean people were named after him as "Abd Adnon" (The Servant/Slave of Adnan). this statement doesn't indicate that he was worshiped, but just considered as an honorable figure, exactly as some other Arabs called some of their sons as "servants" of their fore-fathers.[24][25][26][27]


Adnan died after Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Babylon, after that his son Ma'ad moved away to the region of Central-Western Hijaz after the destruction of the Qedarite kingdom nearMesopotamia, and the remaining Qedarite Arabs there were displaced from their lands and forced to live in Al-Anbar province and the on the banks of the Euphratesriver under the rule of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.[28][29][30][31]

Descent from Adnan to Muhammad[edit]

According to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad was descended from Adnan. "The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the Jazeera and to have been the intraline ancestors of Muhammad."[32]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Charles Sanford Terry (1911). A Short History of Europe, From the fall of the Roman empire to the fall of the Eastern empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1112467356. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  2. ^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  3. ^ Clans of Iraq, Abbas Al-Azzawi, Volume 1, Page 13
  4. ^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir Volume 2, Page 187
  5. ^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume 1, Page 118
  6. ^ Al-Fusool Fe Sirat Ar-Rasul, Page 87
  7. ^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 60
  8. ^ Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen, Dr.Sa'eed Ibn Wahaf Al-Qahtani, Volume: 2, Pages: 14-17
  9. ^ Qala'ed Al-Joman, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume: 1, Page: 31
  10. ^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume: 1, Page:118
  11. ^ Al-Isra'eliyyat Wa Al-Mawdu'at Fe Kutub At-Tafsir, Dr.Mohammad Abu Shaba, Page 259
  12. ^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir, Volume 3, Page 203
  13. ^ Siratu Rasulillah, Volume 1, Page 1
  14. ^ Tareekh At-Tabari, Page 517
  15. ^ Uyoon Al-Athar, Volume 1, Page 33
  16. ^ The Beginning and the End, Ibn Kathir, Part 23, Page 246
  17. ^ Qala'ed Al-Juman, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Page 14
  18. ^ As-Sira An-Nabaweyya, Ibn Kathir, Part 1, Page 75
  19. ^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  20. ^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Prof. Jawwad Ali, Volume: 1, Page: 393
  21. ^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Prof. Jawwad Ali, Volume: 1, Page: 372
  22. ^ The Arab Female Poets during the "Jahiliyyah" and Islamic eras, Bashir Yamut Al-Bayrouti, 1934, Page: 33
  23. ^ A'lam An-Nobouwwah, Abu Al-Hasan Al-Maroudi, Page: 215
  24. ^ Mission des PP. Jaussen et Savignac en Arabie "Hedjaz" (1910), Vol. 38, Page: 328
  25. ^ G. Strenziak, Die Genealogle der Nordaraber nach Ibn Al-Kalbi, (Koln-1953), Vol. 1, Page: 210
  26. ^ Hardings, Some Thamudic Inscriptions (Leiden-1952)
  27. ^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 380
  28. ^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Jawwad Ali, Volume 5, Pages:160-161
  29. ^ The History of Nations and Kings, Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Volume: 1, Page: 327
  30. ^ The Organized History of Nations, Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi, Volume: 1, Page: 408
  31. ^ The Dictionary of CountriesYaqut Al-Hamawi, Volume: 3, Pages: 377-380
  32. ^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [First published 1885]. A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together With the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Retrieved 2010-07-24.

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