Adnan (Arabic: عدنان) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of northern, Western and Central-Western Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of southern and south eastern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.
Adnan is the father of a group of the Ishmaelite Arabs who inhabited West and Northern Arabia. Adnan is believed by Arab genealogies to be the father of many Ishmaelite tribes along the Western coast of Arabia, Northern Arabia and Iraq.
Many family trees have been presented for Adnan, which did not agree about the number of ancestors between Ishmael and Adnan but agreed perfectly about the names and number of the ancestors between Adnan and the Prophet Muhammad.
The overwhelming majority of traditions and Muslim scholars state that Adnan is a descendant of Kedar the son of Ishmael, except for Ibn Ishaq who claimed that Adnan was a descendant of Nebaioth, this confusion of Ibn Ishaq can be due to the case of one of the descendants of Kedar was named "Nebaioth".
Most of Muslim scholars refused any attempt to recite the ancestors between Adnan to Ishmael, and condemned some other scholars such as Ibn Ishaq for doing it.
However, Adnan has also been reported to be a leader of the Qedarite armies in their wars against the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II.
Descent from Adnan to Muhammad
According to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad was descended from Adnan. "The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the Jazeera and to have been the intraline ancestors of Muhammad."
- Adnan (عدنان)
- Ma'add (معد)
- Nizar (نزار)
- Mudar (مضر)
- Elias (إلياس)
- Mudrikah (مدركة)
- Khuzaimah (خزيمة)
- Kinanah (كنانة)
- al-Nadr (النضر)
- Malik (مالك)
- Fihr (فهر)
- Ghalib (غالب)
- Luwaiy (لؤي)
- Ka'ab (كعب)
- Murrah (مرة)
- Kilab (كلاب)
- Qusai (قصي)
- Abd Manaf (عبد مناف)
- Hashim (هاشم)
- Abd al-Muttalib (عبد المطلب)
- Abd Allah (عبد الله)
- Muhammad (محمد)
- Charles Sanford Terry (1911). A Short History of Europe, From the fall of the Roman empire to the fall of the Eastern empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1112467356. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
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- The Kingdoms of the sons of Ishmael,(1988), Page 14
- The Clans of Iraq, Volume 1, Page 24
- The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Volume 1, Page 365
- Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [First published 1885]. A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together With the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani (Arabic: قحطان; transliterated: Qahtan or Qaḥṭān or Kahtan) refer to Semitic peoples either originating in, or claiming genealogical descent from the southern extent of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen.
The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan, with the Himyar branch as Himyarites and the Kahlan branch as Kahlanis.
Arab tradition maintains that a semi-legendary ancestral figure named Qahtan and his 24 sons are the progenitors of the southern inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula known as Qahtani.
Early Islamic historians identified Qahtan with the Yoqtan (Joktan) son of Eber of the Hebrew Bible (Gen. 10:25-29).
Among the sons of Qahtan are noteworthy figures like A'zaal (believed by Arabs to have been the original name of Sana'a, although its current name has been attested since the Iron Age) andHadhramaut. Another son is Ya'rub, and his son Yashjub is the father of 'Abd Shams, who is also called Saba. All Yemeni tribes trace their ancestry back to this "Saba", either through Himyar orKahlan, his two sons.
The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan, who represent the settled Arabs of the south and their nomadic kinsmen (nomads). The Kahlan division of Qahtan consists of 4 subgroups: the Ta' or Tayy, the Azd group which invaded Oman, the 'Amila-Judham group of Palestine, and the Hamdan-Madhhij group who mostly remain in Yemen.
The Kahlan branch includes the following tribes:Azd ( Aus and Khazraj, Bariq, Ghassan, Khuza'a and Daws), Hamdan, Khath'am, Bajflah, Madhhij, Murad, Zubaid and Nakh', Ash'ar, Lakhm andKindah.
Early linguistic connection
The first groups of Semites that moved northward already developed the early Semitic names derived from triliteral and sometimes a quadriliteral verb root that first appeared in early (now extinct) East Semitic languages, especially Akkadian, Assyrian, and Old Babylonian. A closer examination reveals connections with the Central Semitic language family including: Aramiac, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Nabatean, which is closely related to the Southern Semitic languages Minaean, Sabaean, Qatabanian, Awsanian, Hadhramaut, and Himyarite.
Ancient Semitic villages
Biblical and historiographical place names that correspond with modern place names in Yemen and Asir include:
- Adeem, Yadoom, Damt (from the verb D/a/m meaning "to last")
- Aram, Arm, Yareem, Maryama (from the verb A/r/m meaning "to stand above")
- Yafe'e, Mayfa'a, Ayfo'o (from the verb Y/f/a "to grow")
- Aden "settled", Yahosn "lost"
- Thobhan, Mathbah "slaughtered"
- Yomin "south", Yamant "blessed"
- Yahir "to destroy"
- Yaghshom, Ghashm "to rain"
- Yaslih "to fix"
- Marbad, Arbad (from the verb R/b/d meaning "to spread")
Pre-Islamic Qahtani migration out of Arabia
Early Semites who developed civilizations throughout the Ancient Near East gradually relinquished their geopolitical superiority to surrounding cultures and neighboring imperial powers, usually due to either internal turmoil or outside conflict. This climaxed with the arrival of the Chaldeans, and subsequently the rivaling Medes and Persians, during the 7th and 6th centuries BCE respectively. Though the Semites lost geopolitical influence, the Aramaic language emerged as the lingua franca of much of the Near East. However, Aramaic usage declined after the defeat of the Persians and the arrival of the Hellenic armies around 330 BCE.
The Ghassanids (ca. 250 CE) were the last major non-Islamic Semitic migration northward out of Yemen. They revived the Semitic presence in the then Roman-controlled Syria. They initially settled in the Hauran region, eventually spreading to modern Lebanon, Israel & the Palestinian Territories and Jordan, briefly securing governorship of Syria away from the Nabataeans.
Between the 7th and the 14th centuries, the Arabs had forged an empire that extended their rule from Spain and southern France in the west, to western China in the east. During this period ofexpansionism, the Arabs, including Qahtanite tribes, overspread these lands, intermingling with local native populations while yet maintaining their cultural identity. It is not unlikely to find Arabs of Qahtanite descent as far away as Morocco or Iran, and many can trace their heritage with profound accuracy. Among the most famous examples of Qahtanite Arabs is the social scholar Ibn Khaldun who was born in Tunisia to a family that immigrated from Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus).
- Qahtan, Britannica Online Encyclopedia, 2009, webpage: .
- De Lacy O'Leary (2001). p. 18 http://books.google.com/books?id=y3M7lHusi4UC&pg=PA18. Missing or empty
|title=(help) notes "Qahtan are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan".
- Jirjī Zaydān, David Samuel Margoliouth, Umayyads and ʻAbbásids: Being the Fourth Part of Jurjí Zaydán, (about Islamic Empire), 1907, p.45.
- John Simpson, Treasures from Ancient Yemen
- Qahtan in the Arab History