Saturday, November 9, 2013

A time-line of the Ancient Middle-East

15000 BC: end of the ice age 
12000 BC: small urban centers develop in Mallaha (Jordan valley) and Mureybet (Syria), houses in pits 
9500 BC: agriculture (sowing and harvesting) 
8500 BC: walls of Jericho (Jordan valley), houses on the surface of the ground 
8000 BC: domestication of animals, pastoral nomadic life 
7500 BC: Catal Huyuk (Taurus mountains in eastern Anatolia), obsidian trade, no city streets, terraced roofs, wall paintings (bull, woman) 
7000 BC: Hassuna culture (north Iraq), ceramic pottery, geometric motifs 
6500 BC: mixed cereal and livestock farming 
6200 BC: Samarra culture (north Iraq), symbolic motifs on pottery, plannet settlements, egalitarian society, funerary objects 
6000 BC: Ubaid culture (south Iraq), irrigation, riverside settlements 
4800 BC: Eridu culture (south Iraq), hierarchical social organization, monumental buildings 
4200 BC: Susa is founded in western Persia 
4100 BC: Uruk/Enoch is founded (central Iraq) 
4000 BC: Sumerians arrive at Ur 
3900 BC: Susa is founded (western Iran) 
3600 BC: Akkadians emigrate from Syria to southern Mesopotamia 
3500 BC: Sumerians control city-states between the lower Euphrates and Tigris rivers: Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Umma, Nippur 
3300 BC: Sumerians of Uruk invent pictographic writing on clay tablets 
3200 BC: Sumerians invent the wheel 
3100 BC: Sumerians of Uruk invent cuneiform writing 
3100 BC: Tables in proto-Elamite script 
3000 BC: Sumerians employ mathematics on base 60 (360 degrees in a circle, 60 minutes in an hour) 
2900 BC: Uruk has 40,000 people and is divided in an administrative city and a residential city, while agriculture is delegated to the subjects outside the city 
2800 BC: Mari is founded on the Euphrates 
2700 BC: the Sumerian king Gilgamesh rules the city of Uruk 
2700 BC: a first dynasty creates the Elamite kingdom (non Semitic) in western Persia with capital in Susa 
2550 BC: Mesanepada establishes the first dynasty of Ur 
2500 BC: Ur Nanshe establishes the first dynasty of Lagash 
2450 BC: Ennatum, Ur Nanshe's grandson, expands the kingdom of Lagash in the south 
2400 BC: the Hurrians settle in Syria and Anatolia 
2371 BC: Sargon I becomes king of Kish 
2350 BC: king Lugalzagesi of Umma conquers most Sumerian cities and destroys the kingdom of Lagash 
2350 BC: Bab edh-Dhra and Numeira, two towns in the Dead Sea valley, are destroyed by fire (Sodom and Gomorrah) 
2350 BC: The Akkadians conquer Susa 
2340 BC: Sargon I of Kish builds a new capital, Agade (Akkad, later Babylon) and adopts the Semitic language Akkadian instead of Sumerian 
2334 BC: Sargon defeats Lugalzagesi conquers Uruk, Ur, Lagash and Umma, thus uniting Akkadian and Sumerian peoples, thus becoming the first emperor in history 
2330 BC: Sargon's daughter Enheduanna is a poetess 
2320 BC: Sargon invades Lebanon and the Taurus Mountains and creates the Akkadian empire 
2300 BC: the Amorites (Semitic people) migrate from Arabia to Syria 
2278 BC: Sargon dies and is succeeded by his son Rimush, who sacks Elam 
2254 BC: Akkadian king Naram Sin, another son of Sargon, further expands the empire, east and north 
2217 BC: Naram Sin dies and is succeeded by his son Sharkalisharri 
2200 BC: Royal graves of Alaca Hoyuk (Anatolia, 200 kms northeast of Ankara)
2180 BC: the Akkadian empire is destroyed by the Guti, who invade from the north, and the Elamites of Susa regain their independence 
2150 BC: the Sumerians of Lagash revolt against the Guti 
2125 BC: Gudea becomes king of Lagash and builds the monumental sanctuary of Eninnu 
2116 BC: the Sumerians of Uruk revolt against the Guti 
2112 BC: Ur-Nammu of Uruk recreates the Sumerian empire and rebuilds Ur, including the temple of Nanna and the three-terraced ziggurat 
2100 BC: the Hurrians settle in the mountains between Mesopotamia and Anatolia and found the holy city of Urkish 
2094 BC: Ur-Nammu dies and is succeeded by his son Shulgi/Dulgi, who expands the Sumerian empire to Susa and to the north, bordering the Amorites to the west, the Elamites to the east and the Hurrians (Indo-European people) to the north 
2046 BC: Shulgi dies 
2018 BC: the Sumerian empire disintegrates 
2017 BC: the Sumerian governor of Mari, Ishbi Erra, establishes his own dynasty with capital at Isin 
2007 BC: the Elamites of Susa capture Ur 
2000 BC: the game of chess ("shatranj") develops in Persia 
1932 BC: Gungunum becomes king of the Amorites with capital at Larsa, builds the E-Babbar temple and conquers Ur and Elam 
1900 BC: the cities of Assur and Nineveh form an Assyrian kingdom 
1900 BC: the Sukkalmah dynasty seizes power in Elam, turning it into a regional power 
1900 BC: the Epic of Gilgamesh is redacted in the semitic language of Babylon 
1900 BC: the Assyrians emerge from the holy city of Ashur (north Iraq) to establish colonies in Anatolia with headquarters in Nesa (Kanes, Kultepe) 
1894 BC: Babylon is conquered by an Amorite dynasty 
1834 BC: an Elamite, Warad Sin, becomes king of Larsa 
1810 BC: Amorite dynasties seize power in the cities of Ugarit (Lebanon), Aleppo (Syria), Ashur and Mari 
1809 BC: Shamshi-Adad conquers the cities of Mari, Ashur and Ekallutum, and thus creates the Assyrian empire 
1800 BC: the Hittites invent irons and build the first weapons made of iron 
1800 BC: the Babylonians employ a duodecimal system (a system based on 12 and 6) to measure time 
1794 BC: Larsa (king Rim-Sin) conquers Isin 
1792 BC: Hammurabi, sixth king of the Amorite dynasty, is crowned king of Babylon 
1787 BC: Hammurabi conquers the city-states of Uruk and Isin 
1775 BC: Work begins on the Etemenanki, the ziggurath to god Marduk, in Babylon 
1764 BC: Hammurabi defeats the Elamites 
1763 BC: Hammurabi conquers the city-state of Larsa, and thus Ur, Uruk, Isin 
1761 BC: Hammurabi conquers the city-state of Mari 
1755 BC: Hammurabi creates the first code of laws using the Babylonian language
1750 BC: Hammurabi dies and the Babylonian empire dissolves into city-states 
1725 BC: Kutir-Nahhunte I revolts against the Babylonians and Elam regains its independence 
1725 BC: Pithana, king of Kussara, conquers Nesa 
1700 BC: Babylonians invent the first windmills for the purpose of irrigation 
1700 BC: Anitta of Kussara, Pithana's son, ruling from Kussara, conquers eastern Anatolia 
1700 BC: the "Enuma Elish" (creation story of the Babylonians) originates 
1680 BC: Labarna of Kussara reaches the Mediterranean Sea 
1650 BC: Hattusili, son or nephew of Labarna, founds the Hittite kingdom, moves the capital from Kussara to Hattusa (150 kms east of Ankara) and adopts the language of Nesa 
1640 BC: Hattusili fights the kingdom of Iamhad (with capital in Aleppo) 
1600 BC: Hattusili's son Mursili becomes king of the Hittites 
1595 BC: the Hittites under king Mursili I conquer the kingdom of Iamhad (Aleppo) and raid Babylon, thus ending the Amorite dynasty 
1590 BC: the Hittite king, Mursili, is assassinated by Hantili, who becomes king 
1590 BC: the Hittites install the Kassite dynasty (originating from the Central Asian steppes) in Babylon 
1530 BC: the Kassites build a new capital, Durkurigalzu 
1525 BC: Telipinu becomes king of the Hittites 
1500 BC: a caravan trader, Abraham, leads nomads from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt (Hebrews) 
1480 BC: king Parattarna invades the lands of the Hurrians and creates the (Indo-European) Mitanni empire in northern Mesopotamia/Syria with capital in Wassuganni 
1475 BC: the Mitanni king Parattarna conquers the kingdom of Aleppo and installs Idrimi as a vassal 
1458 BC: the Egyptian pharaoh Tuthmosis III defeats the Mitannis and conquers Syria 
1400 BC: the Mitanni king Saustatar conquers Assyria and reconquers Syria 
1400 BC: the Mitanni king Artatama and the Egyptian pharaoh Tuthmosis IV sign a peace treaty 
1365 BC: king Asuruballit restores independence to Assyria 
1350 BC: the city of Ugarit (Syria) employs an alphabet of 32 letters 
1344 BC: Suppiluliuma becomes king of the Hittites 
1340 BC: King Untash-Napirisha of Elam founds a new capital at Chogha Zanbil 
1339 BC: king Suppiluliuma of the Hittites conquers the Mitanni empire and establishes two viceregal kingdoms in Aleppo and Carchemish 
1307 BC: Adadnirari I becomes king of Assyria and defeats and destroys the Mitanni empire 
1275 BC: Khumbannumena expands the Elamite empire 
1274 BC: the Egyptian king Rameses II is defeated by the Hittite king Muwatallis II at the city of Kadesh 
1259 BC: peace treaty between Egyptians (Ramesses II) and Hittites (king Hattusili III) 
1250 BC: the Hebrews return from Egypt and establish a kingdom in Palestine 
1250 BC: the Assyrian army employs iron swords, lances, metal armors 
1250 BC: the Assyrians divide the circle into 360 degrees 
1250 BC: the Elamites build the ziggurat at Choga Zambil, the largest of all times 
1237 BC: Hittite king Hattusili III dies and is succeeded by his son Tudhaliya IV, who builds a palace on the acropolis of the capital, Hattusa 
1225 BC: the Assyrians under king Tukulti-Ninurta I capture Babylon 
1208 BC: the Assyrian king, Tukulti-Ninurta I, is murdered by his son 
1200 BC: the Philistines settle along the shores of Palestine 
1200 BC: the Arameans migrate from Arabia to Syria (Harrans) 
1200 BC: the Phoenicians move from the Arabian peninsula to the Mediterranean coast 
1185 BC: the Hittite empire collapses under the invasion of the "Sea Peoples" 
1168 BC: the Elamites sack Babylon, move Hammurabi's stelae to their capital Susa and terminate the Kassite dynasty 
1115 BC: Tiglat-Pileser becomes king of Assyria 
1105 BC: Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon defeats Elam 
1104 BC: the Phoenicians found Cadiz on the Atlantic coast 
1100 BC: Assyrian king Tiglat-Pileser conquers Syria from the Arameans and Armenia 
1095 BC: Aramaeans migrate into Assyria 
1077 BC: the Assyrian king Tiglat-Pileser dies while the Aramaeans increasingly penetrate Assyrian cities 
1050 BC: Arameans found Damascus and build the temple to the god Hadad 
1020 BC: the Hebrew king David conquers the Philistines and unifies Israel 
1000 BC: the Phoenicians control trade in the Mediterranean Sea from their bases in Byblos and Sidon 
965 BC: Solomon becomes king of Israel, with capital in Jerusalem 
950 BC: the first temple is built in Jerusalem 
950 BC: the Phoenicians build the fortified city of Tyre 
934 BC: Assyrian king Asurdan II fights the Arameans 
922 BC: king Solomon dies and the Hebrew kingdom splits in two, Israel to the north (capital Samaria) and Judea to the south (Jerusalem) 
911 BC: Assyrian king Asurdan II dies and is succeeded by Adadnirari II, who restores Assyrian power 
891 BC: Assyrian king Adadnirari II and is succeeded by Tukulti-Ninurta II 
883 BC: Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta II dies and is succeeded by Ashurnazirpal II 
879 BC: king Ashurnazirpal II of Assyria moves the capital from Nineveh to Nimrud (Kalhu), for which a citadel and a seven-km wall are built 
860 BC: king Ben-Hadad II creates a coalition of Aramean cities against the Assyrians 
859 BC: king Ashurnazirpal II of Assyria dies and is succeeded by his son Shalmaneser II 
855 BC: Assyrian king Shalmaneser II expands the empire through a campaign against the Arameans 
841 BC: Assyrian king Shalmaneser II invades the Syrian-Pheonician coast of the Arameans 
836 BC: Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria, defeats the Medes, who rule in Persia 
835 BC: Assyria annexes Media (northeastern Iran) 
824 BC: king Shalmeneser III of Assyria dies after conquering Palestine, Turkey, and southern Mesopotamia 
823 BC: Shalmeneser III's son, Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria, conquers Babylon and extends the empire from the Gulf to the Mediterranean 
814 BC: the Phoenicians found Carthage in Africa 
750 BC: the Scythians, a pastoral nomadic group, settle between the Don and the Carpathians 
745 BC: Aramaeans' language, Aramaic, becomes a lingua franca of the Middle East 
745 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III becomes king of Assyria and extends the borders 
743 BC: the Assyrians of Tiglathpileser III defeat the Hittites of Urartu 
732 BC: the Assyrians of Tiglathpileser III conquer the Arameans (and therefore Syria) 
729 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III appoints himself king of Babylon, thus reigning over both Assyria and Babylon 
727 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III dies and is succeeded by Shalmaneser V, who conquers Israel 
722 BC: Dayaukku/De‹oces founds the Median dynasty in Persia 
721 BC: Sargon II seizes power in Assyria and forcefully relocates Jews (Jewish diaspora) 
720 BC: King Sargon II of Assyria builds the new capital of Khorsabad (Dur Sharrukin) 
717 BC: the Hittites of Urartu are destroyed by Sargon II of Assyria and the Phrygians submit to Arrysian rule 
710 BC: Daiukku founds the new capital of the Medes/Persians at Hakmataneh/Ecbatana (Hamadan) 
709 BC: Sargon II of Assyria conquers Babylon 
705 BC: Sargon II of Assyria dies and is succeeded by his son Sennacherib, who moves the capital back to Nineveh and builds a royal palace 
700 BC: Achaemenes founds the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia in Anshan, subject to Media 
689 BC: Assyrian king Sennacherib raids Babylon to quell an insurrection 
681 BC: Assyrian king Sennacherib dies and is succeeded by his son Esarhaddon, who rebuilds Babylon 
675 BC: Khshathrita/ Phraortes unites the Median tribes and expels the Assyrians from northeastern Iran 
674 BC: the Scythian king Partatua marries an Assyrian princess 
671 BC: king Esarhaddon of Assyria captures the Egyptian capital of Memphis 
669 BC: king Esarhaddon of Assyria dies and is succeeded by his son Ashurbanipal 
664 BC: Assyrian king Ashurbanipal conquers Thebes 
653 BC: the Scythians invade the Median empire (northeast Persia) 
653 BC: king Ashurbanipal of Assyria destroys the Elamite kingdom and its capital Susa 
649 BC: king Ashurbanipal of Assyria raids Baylon to quell another insurrection 
646 BC: king Ashurbanipal of Assyria raids the Elamite capital Susa in Persia 
630 BC: king Ashurbanipal of Assyria assembles in the city of Nineveh a library of tablets from all the literature of Mesopotamia 
626 BC: Ashurbanipal dies and the Assyrian empire declines 
626 BC: the Medes/Persians defeat the Scythians 
625 BC: Median king Cyaxares moves the capital to Ecbatana (Hamadan) 
625 BC: Chaldean chief Nabopolassar seized power in Babylon 
615 BC: the Medes capture Assyrian cities 
616 BC: Chaldean king Nabopolassar captures Babylon 
612 BC: the Babylonians, led by king Nabopolassar, and their allies the Medes, led by Cyaxares, destroy the Assyrian capital of Nineveh (as well as Nimrud) and split the Assyrian empire (Mesopotamia to Babylon and Elam to Media) while Egypt recovers control of Palestine and Syria 
612 BC: Youstol Dispage 
605 BC: Nabopolassar's son Nebuchadnezzar II leads the Babylonians to conquer Carchemish and defeat the Egyptian army 
604 BC: Nabopolassar dies and his son Nebuchadnezzar II succeeds him as king of Babylon 
600 BC: Zarathustra forms a new religion in Persia 
600 BC: Phoenicians circumnavigate Africa 
600 BC: spread by merchants, Aramaic is the "lingua franca" of Syria and Palestine 
587 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II conquers Judea (southern kingdom of the Hebrews), destroys Jerusalem and deports thousands of Jews (second Jewish diaspora) 
580 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II builds eight monumental gates, the Esagila complex, the seven-storey ziggurat, and the Hanging Gardens 
574 BC: Babylonia conquers the Phoenician cities 
562 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II dies 
560 BC: Lydian king Croesus conquers Ionia 
559 BC: Cyrus Achaemenian unifies Elam, defeats the Chaldeans and moves the capital of the Achaemenids to Susa 
550 BC: Cyrus Achaemenian defeats Astyages, emperor of the Medes, conquers its capital Ecbatana (Hamadan), and unifies Media and Elam in the Persian empire
546 BC: Cyrus overthrows Croesus of Lydia 
539 BC: Cyrus of Persia sacks Babylon and frees the Jews 
530 BC: Cambyses becomes king of Persia 
525 BC: Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium 
522 BC: Cambyses dies and civil War erupts in Persia 
521 BC: Darius becomes king of Persia and divides Persia into satrapies 
521 BC: Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River 
518 BC: Darius founds the new capital of Persia, Persepolis 
514 BC: the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia 
500 BC: Darius makes Aramaic the official language of the Persian empire 
490 BC: Darius of Persia attacks mainland Greece 
485 BC: Darius dies and Xerxes becomes king of Persia 
480 BC: the Greeks expels the Persians from Europe 
465 BC: Artaxerxes I Longimanus becomes king of Persia 
425 BC: Phoenician explorer Himilco travels from Carthage to Brittany 
424 BC: Xerxes II becomes king of Persia 
404 BC: Artaxerxes II Mnemon becomes king of Persia 
360 BC: king Atheas unites all Scythian tribes and expands their territory to the border with Macedonia 
358 BC: Artaxerxes III Ochus becomes king of Persia 
339 BC: Atheas of Scythia is killed in the war against Philip of Macedonia 
336 BC: Darius Codomannus becomes king of Persia 
336 BC: Alexander becomes king of Macedonia 
334 BC: Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles 
333 BC: Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine 
332 BC: Alexander the Great conquers Egypt 
331 BC: Alexander the Great conquers Persia (battle of Gaugamela) and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty 
329 BC: Artaxerxes V dies, last of the Achaemenians 
324 BC: Alexander invades the Punjab in India 
323 BC: Alexander the Great dies at Babylon and his empire is carved into three empires: Cassander rules over Greece and Macedonia, Lysimachus rules over Thracia and Asia Minor, Ptolemy rules over Egypt, Judea, Syria, Mesopotamia and India 
312 BC: Ptolemy's general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, declares himself satrap of Babylon 
307 BC: Ptolemy founds the library of Alexandria 
306 BC: Lysimachus general Antigonus Monophthalmos declares himself king of Phrygia 
305 BC: Seleucus Nicator establishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty with capital in Seleucia (Iraq) 
303 BC: Seleucus grants Punjab and Afghanistan to Chandragupta Maurya 
302 BC: Mithridates I, a subject of Lysimachus, declares the kingdom of Pontus 
301 BC: Antigonus is defeated by Lysimachus 
283 BC: Philataerus, a subject of Lysimachus, seizes the fortress of Pergamum (Pergamon) 
282 BC: Seleucus defeats and kills Lysimachus and thereby conquers Asia Minor 
281 BC: Seleucus is murdered by the king of Thracia and is succeeded by his son Antiochus who transfers the capital to Antiochia 
265 BC: Antiochus I founds Antiochia in old Margiana (Mary, Merv) to guard from invasions of the Parni 
263 BC: Eumenes, son of Philataerus, proclaims the kingdom of Pergamum and begins the Attalid dynasty 
261 BC: Antiochus II (Seleucid) fights the Egyptans 
250 BC: Diodotos, a Macedonian ruler of the satrapy of Bactria (Afghanistan), declares its independence from the Seleucids 
250 BC: the Parni invade the satrapy of Parthia (northern Iran) and found the Parthian empire with capital in Ctesiphon (near Seleucia) and Arsaces as ruler (founder of the Arsacid dynasty) 
248 BC: Tiridates leads the Parthians to independence from the Seleucids 
246 BC: defeated by Ptolemy III Euergetes, the Seleucid empire loses eastern lands to the Parthians and to Pergamum 
241 BC: Attalus, son of Emenes, defeats the Galatians 
239 BC: Bactria declares independence from the Seleucids 
225 BC: the Celts in the west and the Sarmatians in the east destroy the Scythian kingdom 
211 BC: Tiridates dies and Artabanus I becomes ruler of the Parthians 
204 BC: Ptolomy IV of Egypt dies 
198 BC: the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine and Phoenicia from the Ptolemaics 
192 BC: the Seleucids under Antiochus III are defeated by the Romans in Thracia
190 BC: Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia 
188 BC: Pergamum conquers the Seleucid lands of Lydia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pisidia 
185 BC: Parthians under Priapatius expand into Seleucid eastern Iran 
175 BC: Mithraism (an offshoot of Zoroastrianism that worships Ahura Mazda as the sole and creator god) is born in Bactria 
170 BC: Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India 
165 BC: the Maccabeans revolt in Palestine and gain independence from the Seleucids 
159 BC: the new king Eumenes II of Pergamum inaugurates a library that would compete with Alexandria's 
155 BC: Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India 
145 BC: the Kushan (Yuezhi), nomadic tribes expelled from China by the Hsiungnu (Huns), overthrow the kingdom of Bactria (last Greek kingdom in Cental Asia) and push the Scythians south to Iran and India 
141 BC: the Parthians of Mithradates I conquer Media and Elam from the Seleucids, while Edessa becomes de-facto independent 
135 BC: the Kushan establish their capital in Kabul 
133 BC: Attalus III of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Rome 
127 BC: the Parthians under Phraates II are defeated by the Scythians 
126 BC: the Parthians under Artabanus II conquer Babylonia from the Seleucids, who now control only Syria 
124 BC: the Parthians under Artabanus II are defeated again by the Scythians and Mithridates II succeeds Artabanus II as king of Parthia 
106 BC: Mithirdates II signs a treaty with Chinese emperor Wu-Ti to open the "silk road" 
96 BC: Tigranes becomes king of Armenia 
92 BC: Mithridates II signs a peace treaty with Rome 
69 BC: Rome invades Tigranes' Armenian kingdom and edstroys its capital, Tigranocerta 
80 BC: the Scythians (Saka) under Bhumaka conquer northwestern India from Bactria 
71 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus is conquered by Rome 
64 BC: Syria and the the Phoenician cities are conquered by Roman general Pompey and the Seleucid dynasty ends 
63 BC: Pompeus captures Jerusalem and annexes Palestine to Rome 
53 BC: the Parthians led by Orodes II defeat the Romans at Carrhae (Syria) 
20 BC: a treaty between Rome and the Parthians fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river (Iraq) 
50 ADChristianity emerges from Palestine 
78 AD: Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism 
116: Roman emperor Trajan defeats the Parthian king Vologezes III and conquers Mesopotamia, including the Parthian capital Ctesiphon 
224: Ardashir, descendant of the priest Sassan, seizes the throne of Persia/Parthia, ends the Arsacid dynasty, and becomes the first Sassanid king with capital in Istakhr (near Persepolis) and Zoroastrianism as the official religion 
225: Ardashir I Sassanid defeats Artabanus V, last Parthian ruler, and moves the capital to Ctesiphon 
233: Ardashir I Sassanid conquers Kushan 
244: Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Rome 
250: Shahpur I establishes the library of Jondi Shahpur, one of the largest in the world 
256: the Persians/Sassanids conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia 
241: Mani, a thinker from Ecbatana, begins to preach in Seleucia-Ctesiphon 
276: Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion ("manicheism") 
298: the Sassanids sign a peace treaty with Rome 
298: Youstol Dispage 
363: the Sassanid king Shapur II defeats the Roman emperor Julian and recapture Nisibis and Armenia 
379: Shapur II died after conquering Arabia and reaching the border with China 
380: Buddhist monks carve two giant Buddha statues in the rock at Bamiya, Bactria (Afghanistan) 
451: Zoroastran Persia (Sassanids) defeats Christian Armenia 
460: Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews, who emigrate to Arabia 
484: Zoroastran Persia and Christian Armenia sign a treaty that allows the Armenians to keep their religion 
528: the Sassanid intellectual Mazdak advocates the abolition of private property, the division of wealth, nonviolence and vegetarianism 
531: Khusro I ascends to the Sassanid throne and is influenced by Mazdakism 
560: the Sassanid king Khusro I builds the Palace of the Great Arch in Ctsiphon 
579: the Sassanid king Khusro I dies and is succeeded by Khusro II 
590: the Sassanid king Khusro II launches a new attack against Byzantium 
600: the Zoroastrian high priest Tanar establishes the canon of the Avesta 
614: the Sassanids capture Jerusalem from Byzantium 
619: the Sassanids capture Egypt from Byzantium 
623: Byzantine troops destroy the fire temples of Persia (in revenge for the Persian desecration of Jerusalem) 
626: the Sassanids besiege Byzantium 
627: the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh 
628: Khusrau II is assassinated by his troops while the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids 
632: the Sassanid queen Purandokht signs a peace treaty with Byzantium 
636: the Arabs capture Ctesiphon, the last Sassanid is assassinated in Merv and the Sassanid empire ends

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