Sunday, November 10, 2013

Pre Islamic mention of Adnan and Joktan

Pre Islamic Mention of Adnan and Joktan

It is said that Adnan and Joktan were mentioned in Post Quranic times, this is false, Both Adnan and Joktan were mentioned in Pre Islamic times:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adnan (Arabicعدنان‎) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central-Western Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of southern and south eastern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.[1]


According to tradition, Adnan is the father of a group of the Ishmaelite Arabs who inhabited West and Northern Arabia. Adnan is believed by Arab genealogies to be the father of many Ishmaelitetribes along the Western coast of Arabia, Northern Arabia and Iraq.[2][3][4][5]
Many family trees have been presented for Adnan, which did not agree about the number of ancestors between Ishmael and Adnan but agreed perfectly about the names and number of the ancestors between Adnan and the Prophet Muhammad.[6][7]
The overwhelming majority of traditions and Muslim scholars state that Adnan is a descendant of Kedar the son of Ishmael,[8][9][10][11][12] except for Ibn Ishaq who claimed that Adnan was a descendant of Nebaioth,[13] this confusion of Ibn Ishaq can be due to the case of one of the descendants of Kedar was named "Nebaioth".[14]
Most of Muslim scholars refused any attempt to recite the ancestors between Adnan to Ishmael, and condemned some other scholars such as Ibn Ishaq for doing it.[15][16][17][18][19]

In Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

Adnan was mentioned in various Pre-Islamic poems, such as the Pre-Islamic poets: "Lubayb Ibn Rabi'a" and "Abbas Ibn Mirdas".[20]
Adnan has been viewed by Pre-Islamic Arabs as an honorable father among the fathers of Arab tribes, and they used this ancestry to boast against other Qahtani tribes who were a minority among the Adnanites.[21]
"Layla Bent Lukayz", a Pre-Islamic female poet, was captured by a Persian king and forced to marry him, so she composed a poem designated to other Arab tribes, asking for their help and reminding that she and them all belong to Adnan, which makes it a duty for them to rescue her.[22]
In other poems such as the ones composed by the Pre-Islamic poet "Qumma'a Ibn Ilias", it appears that Arabs considered it as a "Honor" to be a descendant of Adnan, and for some reason they appear to have been proud of it.[23]

In North Arabian Inscriptions[edit]

The name of Adnan was found many times in various Thamudic inscriptions, but it was only mentioned as a persom without telling so much about him. While in some Nabataean inscriptions, Adnan seem to have holding some kind of importance or veneration, so that some of Nabataean people were named after him as "Abd Adnon" (The Servant/Slave of Adnan). this statement doesn't indicate that he was worshiped, but just considered as an honorable figure, exactly as some other Arabs called some of their sons as "servants" of their fore-fathers.[24][25][26][27]


Adnan died after Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Babylon, after that his son Ma'ad moved away to the region of Central-Western Hijaz after the destruction of the Qedarite kingdom nearMesopotamia, and the remaining Qedarite Arabs there were displaced from their lands and forced to live in Al-Anbar province and the on the banks of the Euphratesriver under the rule of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.[28][29][30][31]

Descent from Adnan to Muhammad[edit]

According to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad was descended from Adnan. "The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the Jazeera and to have been the intraline ancestors of Muhammad."[32]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Charles Sanford Terry (1911). A Short History of Europe, From the fall of the Roman empire to the fall of the Eastern empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1112467356. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  2. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  3. Jump up^ Clans of Iraq, Abbas Al-Azzawi, Volume 1, Page 13
  4. Jump up^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir Volume 2, Page 187
  5. Jump up^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume 1, Page 118
  6. Jump up^ Al-Fusool Fe Sirat Ar-Rasul, Page 87
  7. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 60
  8. Jump up^ Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen, Dr.Sa'eed Ibn Wahaf Al-Qahtani, Volume: 2, Pages: 14-17
  9. Jump up^ Qala'ed Al-Joman, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume: 1, Page: 31
  10. Jump up^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume: 1, Page:118
  11. Jump up^ Al-Isra'eliyyat Wa Al-Mawdu'at Fe Kutub At-Tafsir, Dr.Mohammad Abu Shaba, Page 259
  12. Jump up^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir, Volume 3, Page 203
  13. Jump up^ Siratu Rasulillah, Volume 1, Page 1
  14. Jump up^ Tareekh At-Tabari, Page 517
  15. Jump up^ Uyoon Al-Athar, Volume 1, Page 33
  16. Jump up^ The Beginning and the End, Ibn Kathir, Part 23, Page 246
  17. Jump up^ Qala'ed Al-Juman, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Page 14
  18. Jump up^ As-Sira An-Nabaweyya, Ibn Kathir, Part 1, Page 75
  19. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  20. Jump up^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Prof. Jawwad Ali, Volume: 1, Page: 393
  21. Jump up^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Prof. Jawwad Ali, Volume: 1, Page: 372
  22. Jump up^ The Arab Female Poets during the "Jahiliyyah" and Islamic eras, Bashir Yamut Al-Bayrouti, 1934, Page: 33
  23. Jump up^ A'lam An-Nobouwwah, Abu Al-Hasan Al-Maroudi, Page: 215
  24. Jump up^ Mission des PP. Jaussen et Savignac en Arabie "Hedjaz" (1910), Vol. 38, Page: 328
  25. Jump up^ G. Strenziak, Die Genealogle der Nordaraber nach Ibn Al-Kalbi, (Koln-1953), Vol. 1, Page: 210
  26. Jump up^ Hardings, Some Thamudic Inscriptions (Leiden-1952)
  27. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 380
  28. Jump up^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Jawwad Ali, Volume 5, Pages:160-161
  29. Jump up^ The History of Nations and Kings, Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Volume: 1, Page: 327
  30. Jump up^ The Organized History of Nations, Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi, Volume: 1, Page: 408
  31. Jump up^ The Dictionary of CountriesYaqut Al-Hamawi, Volume: 3, Pages: 377-380
  32. Jump up^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [First published 1885]. A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together With the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Retrieved 2010-07-24.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani (Arabicقَحْطَانِي from قَحْطَان‎; transliterated: Qahtani or Qaḥṭānī or Kahtani) refer to one of the main groups of Arab peoples either originating in, or claiminggenealogical descent from the southern extent of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen.[1][2]
The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan, with the Himyar branch as Himyarites and the Kahlan branch as Kahlanis.[2] Another dominant group among the Arab people are variously known as AdnanMa'add or Nizar.[2]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Joktan or Yoktan (HebrewיָקְטָןModern Yoktan Tiberian YoqṭānArabicقحطان‎ Qahṭān; literally, "little") was the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr. 1:19) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. His name means "small" or "smallness".
In the Book of Genesis 10:25 it reads: "And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan."
Joktan's sons in the order provided in Gen. 10:26-29, were AlmodadShelephHazarmavethJerahHadoramUzalDiklahObalAbimaelShebaOphirHavilah, and Jobab.
In Pseudo-Philo's account (ca. 70), Joktan was first made prince over the children of Shem, just as Nimrod and Phenech were princes over the children of Ham and Japheth, respectively. In his version, the three princes command all persons to bake bricks for the Tower of Babel; however, twelve, including several of Joktan's own sons, as well as Abraham and Lot, refuse the orders. Joktan smuggles them out of Shinar and into the mountains, to the annoyance of the other two princes.[1] The traditional history of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church also maintains that Joktan's sons would take no part in the tower building, and that they were thus allowed to preserve the original Ge'ez language — which their descendants, the Agazyan, carried across the Red Sea into Ethiopia as they mixed with the Cushitic and Agaw people to form the hybrid Habesha race.

In pre-Islamic literature[edit]

Details about the three of Joktan's sons, Sheba, Ophir and Havilah, were preserved in a tradition known in divergent forms from three pre-Islamic Arabic and Ethiopic sources: the Kitab al-Magall(part of Clementine literature), the Cave of Treasures, and the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan.
Kitab al-Magall: "He [Nimrod] died in the days of Reu, and the third thousand since Adam was completed. In his days the people of Egypt set up a king over them called Firnifs. He reigned over them for sixty-eight years. In his days also a king reigned over the town of Saba and annexed to his kingdom the cities of Ophir and Havilah, his name was Pharaoh. He built Ophir with stones of gold, for the stones of its mountains are pure gold. After him there reigned over Havilah a king called Hayul. He built it and cemented it, and after the death of Pharaoh women reigned over Saba until the time of Solomon son of David."
Cave of Treasures: "And in the days of Reu, the Mesraye, who are the Egyptians, appointed their first king; his name was Puntos, and he reigned over them sixty-eight years. And in the days of Reu a king reigned in Shebha (Saba), and in Ophir, and in Havilah. And there reigned in Saba sixty of the daughters of Saba. And for many years women reigned in Saba--until the kingdom of Solomon, the son of David. And the children of Ophir, that is, Send (Scindia ?), appointed to be their king Lophoron (?), who built Ophir with stones of gold; now, all the stones that are in Ophir are of gold. And the children of Havilah appointed to be their king Havîl, who built Havilah, that is, Hend (India ?)."
Conflict of Adam and Eve: "And in those days Ragu [Reu] was 180 years old, and in his 140th year Yanuf [Apophis] reigned over the land of Egypt. He is the first king who reigned over it, and he built the city of Memphis, and named it after his own name. That is Misr, whose name is rendered Masrin. This Yanuf died; and in his stead, in the days of Ragu, one from the land of India reigned, whose name was Sasen, and who built the city of Saba. And all the kings who reigned over that country were called Sabaeans, after the name of the city. Then again Phar'an reigned over the children of Saphir

Qahtani origins[edit]

Arab tradition maintains that a semi-legendary ancestral figure named Qahtan[1][2] and his 24 sons are the progenitors of the southern inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula known as Qahtani.
Early Islamic historians identified Qahtan with the Yoqtan (Joktan) son of Eber of the Hebrew Bible (Gen. 10:25-29).[citation needed]
Among the sons of Qahtan are noteworthy figures like A'zaal (believed by Arabs to have been the original name of Sana'a, although its current name has been attested since the Iron Age) andHadhramaut. Another son is Ya'rub, and his son Yashjub is the father of 'Abd Shams, who is also called Saba. All Yemeni tribes trace their ancestry back to this "Saba", either through Himyar orKahlan, his two sons.
The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan, who represent the settled Arabs of the south and their nomadic kinsmen (nomads).[2] The Kahlan division of Qahtan consists of 4 subgroups: the Ta' or Tayy, the Azd group which invaded Oman, the 'Amila-Judham group of Palestine, and the Hamdan-Madhhij group who mostly remain in Yemen.[2]
The Kahlan branch includes the following tribes:Azd ( Aus and KhazrajBariqGhassanKhuza'a and Daws), HamdanKhath'amBajflahMadhhijMuradZubaid and Nakh'Ash'arLakhm andKindah.[3]

Early linguistic connection[edit]

The first groups of Semites that moved northward already developed the early Semitic names derived from triliteral and sometimes a quadriliteral verb root that first appeared in early (now extinct) East Semitic languages, especially AkkadianAssyrian, and Old Babylonian. A closer examination reveals connections with the Central Semitic language family including: AramaicPhoenicianHebrew, and Nabatean, which is closely related to the Southern Semitic languages MinaeanSabaeanQatabanianAwsanianHadhrami, and Himyarite.

Ancient Semitic villages[edit]

Biblical and historiographical place names that correspond with modern place names in Yemen and Asir include:

Pre-Islamic Qahtani migration out of Arabia[edit]

Early Semites who developed civilizations throughout the Ancient Near East gradually relinquished their geopolitical superiority to surrounding cultures and neighboring imperial powers, usually due to either internal turmoil or outside conflict. This climaxed with the arrival of the Chaldeans, and subsequently the rivaling Medes and Persians, during the 7th and 6th centuries BCE respectively. Though the Semites lost geopolitical influence, the Aramaic language emerged as the lingua franca of much of the Near East. However, Aramaic usage declined after the defeat of the Persians and the arrival of the Hellenic armies around 330 BCE.

The Ghassanids[edit]

The Ghassanids (ca. 250 CE) were the last major non-Islamic Semitic migration northward out of Yemen. They revived the Semitic presence in the then Roman-controlled Syria. They initially settled in the Hauran region, eventually spreading to modern LebanonIsrael & the Palestinian Territories and Jordan, briefly securing governorship of Syria away from the Nabataeans.

After Islam[edit]

Between the 7th and the 14th centuries, the Arabs had forged an empire that extended their rule from most of Spain and southern France in the west, to western China in the east. During this period of expansionism, the Arabs, including Qahtanite tribes, overspread these lands, intermingling with local native populations while yet maintaining their cultural identity. It is not unlikely to find Arabs of Qahtanite descent as far away as Morocco or Iran, and many can trace their heritage with profound accuracy. Among the most famous examples of Qahtanite Arabs is the social scholarIbn Khaldun who was born in Tunisia to a family that immigrated from Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus).

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.