Saturday, November 2, 2013

Ma'ad's connection to Adnan and Adnans connection to Ishamel

Ma'ad ibn Adnan

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Ma'ad son of Adnan is in Classical Arabic literature an ancient ancestor of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.


According to traditions, Ma'ad is the son of Adnan, the father of a group of the Ishmaelite Arabs who inhabited West and Northern Arabia. Adnan is believed by Arab genealogies to be the father of many Ishmaelite tribes along the Western coast of Arabia, Northern Arabia and Iraq.[1][2][3][4]
As it was reported, Ma'ad was first born of Adnan.[5][6][7][8][9]


In Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

From the poems composed by Pre-Islamic poets, and from their statements, it can be concluded that Ma'ad was more venerated and more important than his father Adnan, evidenced by the amount of times when he was mentioned in Pre-Islamic poetries, and how he was described and honored by his descendants's tribes when boasting against other tribes, some other poets even considered it as "disgrace" not to be a descendant of Adnan and Ma'ad.[10][11]
Some other poems also celebrated and honored the victory of the people of Ma'ad against the Ghassanids and the kingdom of "Mazhaj" in South Arabia.[12][13]
When the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II attacked the Qedarite Arabs during the time of Adnan, Ma'ad was sent away by his father, and after the defeat of the Qedarite and the death of bothAdnan and Nebuchadnezzar II, many of the people of Adnan who were not forced to live in Mesopotamia have fled away to Yemen, but Ma'ad, as the successor of his father, ordered them to come back to Hijaz and Northern Arabia.[14][15][16][17]

We begin with the statements of Ibn Kathir:
There is no question of ‘Adnan being of the line of Ishmael, son of Abraham, upon both of whom be peace. What dispute there is relates to the number of forebears there were from ‘Adnan to Ishmael according to the various sources.
At one end of the spectrum, there is the extreme view that considers there to have been FORTY; this is the view of Christians and Jews who adopted it from the writings of Rakhiya, the clerk of Armiya (Jeremy) b. Halqiya, as we will relate.
Some authorities maintain there THIRTY, others TWENTY, yet more FIFTEEN, TEN, NINE, or SEVEN.
It has been said that the lowest estimate given is for FOUR, according to the account given by Musa b. Ya‘qub, on the authority of ‘Abd Allah b. Wahb b. Zum’a al-Zuma‘i from his aunt, and then from Umm Salama who stated that the Prophet (SAAS) said that the line was: "Ma‘ad b. ‘Adnan b. Adab b. Zand b. al-Tara b. A‘raq al-Thara".
According to Umm Salam this Zanad was al-Hamaysa‘, al-Yara was Nabit, while A‘raq al-Thara was Ishmael. This was implied because he was Abraham's son; for Abraham was not consumed by hell-fire, since fire does not consume moist earth, the meaning of al-thara.
Al-Daraqatni stated that he knew of no "Zand" except the one in this tradition, and Zand b. al-Jawn, who was Abu Dalama the poet.
Abu al-Qasim al-Suhayli and other Imams stated that the time lapse between ‘Adnan and Ishmael was too great for there to have been only FOUR, TEN, or even TWENTY generations between them. That, they said, was because the age of Ma‘ad son of ‘Adnan was twelve at the time of Bukhtunassar (Nebuchadnezzar).
Abu Ja‘far al-Tabari and others related that Almighty God sent a revelation at that time to Armiya’ b. Halqiya telling him to go to Bukhtunassar to inform him that God had given him rule over the Arabs. And God commanded to Armiya’ to carry Ma‘ad b. Adnan on the horse al-Buraq so that they would not bear him any rancour saying, "For I shall draw forth from his loins a noble Prophet by whom I shall seal the prophets."
‘Armiya did that, bearing Ma‘ad on al-Buraq to the land of Syria where he grew up among the Jews who remained there following the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem. There he married a woman named Ma‘ana, daughter of Jawshin unrest had quietened [sic] down and accord prevailed in the Arabian peninsula. Rakhiya, Armiya’s scribe, wrote his master's genealogy down in a document he had there which was to go into Armiya’s library; and he similarly preserved the genealogy of Ma‘ad. But God knows best.
Al-Suhayli commented further, "We have merely discussed tracing back these lines to accord with the school of thought of those scholars who favour and do not disapprove of it, men such as Ibn Ishaq, al-Bukhari, al-Zubayr b. Bakkar, al-Tabari, and others."
As for Malik, God have mercy on him, he expressed disapproval when asked about someone tracing his descent back to Adam and commented: "WHENCE COMES TO HIM KNOWLEDGE OF THAT?" When he was asked about tracing back to Ishmael, he expressed similar disapproval, asking, "WHO COULD PROVIDE SUCH AN INFORMATION?" Malik also disliked tracing the genealogy of the prophets, such as saying, "Abraham son of so-and-so". Al-Mu‘ayti stated this in his book.
Al-Suhayli commented also that Malik's viewpoint was analogous to what was related of ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr who is reported to have said, "WE HAVE FOUND NO ONE WHO KNOWS THE LINE BETWEEN ‘ADNAN AND ISHMAEL."
It is reported that Ibn ‘Abbas said, "Between ‘Adnan and Ishmael there were 30 ancestors WHO ARE UNKNOWN."
Ibn ‘Abbas is also reputed to have said when he traced back lines of descent as far as ‘Adnan: "The genealogists have LIED. TWICE OR THRICE." And that (scepticism) is even more characteristic of Ibn Mas‘ud, whose (attitude) was like that of Ibn ‘Abbas.
‘Umar b. al-Khattab stated, "We carry back the genealogy ONLY AS FAR AS ‘ADNAN."
Abu ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-Barr stated in his book Al-Anba’ fi Ma‘rifat Qaba’il al-Ruwah (Facts Concerning Knowledge of the Tribes of the Transmitters) that Ibn Lahi‘a related from Abu al-Aswad that he heard ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr say, "WE NEVER FOUND ANYONE WHO KNEW [sic] GENEALOGY BACK PAST ‘ADNAN, NOR PAST QAHTAN, UNLESS THEY WERE USING CONJECTURE. "
Abu al-Aswad stated that he had heard Abu Bakr Sulayman b. Abu Khaytham, one of the very most knowledgeable men of the poetry and the genealogy of Quraysh, say, "WE NEVER KNEW ANYONE WITH INFORMATION GOING BACK BEYOND MA‘AD B. ‘ADNAN, whether relating poetry or other knowledge."
Abu ‘Umar said that there was a group of the predecessors including ‘Abd Allah b. Mas‘ud, ‘Amr b. Maymun al-Azdi, and Muhammad b. Ka‘b al-Quradhi who, when they recited the verse from the Qur’an "and those after them who no one but God knows" (surat Ibrahim, XIV, v. 9) would comment, "THE GENEALOGISTS LIED."
Abu ‘Umar, God have mercy on him, stated, "We hold the meaning of this to differ from their interpretation. What is implied is that regarding those who claim to enumerate Adam's descendants, no one knows them except God who created them. But as for the lines of descent of the Arabs, the scholars conversant with their history and genealogy were aware of and learned by heart about the people and the major tribes, DIFFERING IN SOME DETAILS OF THAT." (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], pp. 50-52; capital emphasis ours)
The next section comes from Ibn Sa‘d:
.. he on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas; he said: Verily the Prophet (may peace be upon him), WHENEVER he related his genealogy, DID NOT GO BEYOND MA‘ADD IBN ‘ADNAN IBN UDAD, then he kept quiet and said: The narrators of genealogy ARE LIARS, since Allah says: "There passed many generations between them."
Ibn ‘Abbas says: The Prophet would have been informed of the genealogy (prior to Adnan by Allah) if he (Prophet) had so wished.
.. he on the authority of ‘Abd Allah. Verily he recited "(The tribes of) ‘Ad and Thamud and those after them; NONE SAVETH ALLAH KNOWETH THEM." The genealogists ARE LIARS.
... between Ma‘add and Isma‘il there were more than THIRTY GENERATIONS; but he did not give their names, nor described their genealogy, probably he did not mention it because he might have heard the Hadith of Abu Salih on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas who narrated about the Prophet (may Allah bless them) THAT HE KEPT QUIET AFTER MENTIONING MA‘ADD IBN ‘ADNAN.
Hisham said: A narrator informed me on the authority of my father, but I had not heard it from him, that he related the genealogy thus, Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan Ibn Udad Ibn al-Hamaysa’ Ibn Salaman Ibn ‘Aws Ibn Yuz Ibn Qamwal Ibn Ubayyi Ibn al-‘Awwam, Ibn Nashid Ibn Haza Ibn Buldas Ibn Tudlaf Ibn Tabikh Ibn Jahim Ibn Nahish Ibn Makha Ibn ‘Ayfa Ibn ‘Abqar Ibn ‘Ubayd Ibn al-Du‘a Ibn Hamdan Ibn Sanbar Ibn Yathriba Ibn Nahzan Ibn Yalhan Ibn Ir‘awa Ibn ‘Ayfa Ibn Dayshan Ibn ‘Isar Ibn Iqnad Ibn Ibham Ibn Muqsi Ibn Nahith Ibn Zarih Ibn Shumayyi Ibn Mazzi Ibn ‘Aws Ibn ‘Arram IBN QAYDHARIbn Isma‘il Ibn Ibrahim (my Allah bless them both).
... There was a Tadmurite whose patronymic was Abu Ya‘qub; he was one ... of the Israelite Muslims, and had read Israelite literature and acquired proficiency in it; he mentioned that Burakh Ibn Nariyya the scribe of Irmiya (Jeremiah) drew the genealogy of Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan and wrote it in his books. This is known to the Israelite scholars and learned men. The names (mentioned here) resemble them, and if there is any difference it is because of the language since they have been translated from Hebrew.
... I heard a person saying: Ma‘add was contemporary with ‘Isa Ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary) and his genealogy is this: Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan Ibn Udad Ibn Zayd Ibn Yaqdur Ibn Yaqdum Ibn Amin Ibn Manhar Ibn Sabuh Ibn al-Hamaysa‘ Ibn Yashjub Ibn Ya‘rub, Ibn al-‘Awwam Ibn Nabit Ibn Salman Ibn Haml Ibn QAYDHAR Ibn Isma‘il Ibn Ibrahim.
He (Ibn Sa‘d) said: Some one has named al-‘Awwal BEFORE al-Hamaysa‘ thus showing (al-‘Awwam) as his son.
... Verily the genealogy of Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan HAS BEEN TRACED DIFFERENTLY. In some narrations it is Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan Ibn Muqawwam, Ibn Nahur Ibn Tirah Ibn Ya‘rub Ibn Yashjub IBN NABIT Ibn Isma ‘il.
He (Ibn Sa‘d) said: And some say: Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan Ibn Udad ’Itahab Ibn Ayyub IBN QAYDHAR Ibn Isma‘il Ibrahim.
Muhammad Ibn Ishaq said: Qusayyi Ibn Kilab traced his genealogy to Qaydhar Ibn Isma‘il in some of his verses. Muhammad Ibn al-Sa‘ib al-Kalbi recited this couplet on the authority of his father ascribing it to Qusayyi:
"I have nothing to do with nursing if the children of Qaydhar and Nabit did not establish relationship with the same."
Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Sa‘d said: I do not find much difference between them. Verily, Ma‘add was descended from Qaydhar Ibn Isma‘il; and this DIFFERENCE in his genealogy shows that the same WAS NOT CORRECTLY REMEMBERED and it was borrowed from the people of the scriptures (ahl al-Kitab) and translated, so they made differences. If it had been correct the Apostle of Allah must have known it. The best course with us is to trace the genealogy to Ma‘add Ibn ‘Adnan THEN TO KEEP QUIET UP TO ISMA‘IL IBN IBRAHIM.
... he on the authority of ‘Urwah; he said: WE DID NOT FIND ANY ONE TRACING THE GENEALOGY ABOVE MA‘ADD IBN ‘ADNAN.
He (Ibn Sa‘d) said: Hsiham Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Sa‘ib informed us on the authority of his father that Ma‘add was with Bukht Nassar (Banu Ched Nader) when he fought in the forts of Yaman. (Ibn Sa'ad'sKitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir Volume I, parts I & II, English translation by S. Moinul Haq, M.A., PH.D assisted by H.K. Ghazanfar M.A. [Kitab Bhavan Exporters & Importers, 1784 Kalan Mahal, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110 002 India], pp. 50-53; capital and underline emphasis ours)
We conclude with Al-Tabari. Much of what he says is material found above in Ibn Sa‘d:
"... I heard the Messenger of God say, ‘Ma‘add ‘Adnan b. Udad b. Zand b. Yara b. A‘raq al-Thara.’ Umm Salamah: Zand is al-Hamaysa‘, Yara is NABT and A‘raq al-Thara is Ishmael, son of Abraham.
... ‘Adnan, AS SOME GENEALOGISTS ASSERT, was the son of Udad b. Muqawwam b. Nahur b. Tayrah b. Ya ‘rub b. NABIT b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham), WHILE OTHERS SAY: ‘Adnan b. Udad b. Aytahab b. Ayyub b. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham). Qusayy b. Kilab traces his descent back to QAYDHAR in his poetry. YET OTHER GENEALOGISTS SAY: ‘Adnan b. Mayda‘ b. Mani‘ b. Udad b. Ka‘b b. Yashjub b. Ya‘rub b. al-Hamaysa‘ b. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham). THESE DIFFERENCES arise because it is an old science, taken from the people of the first Book (the Old Testament).
... Muhammad b. al-Sa‘ib al-Kalbi, although I did not hear this from him myself, that he traced the descent as follows; Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. al-Hamaysa‘ b. Salaman b. ‘Aws b. Buz b. Qamwal b. Ubayy b. al-‘Awwam b. Nashid b. Haza b. Bildas b. Yidlaf b. Tabakh b. Jaham b. Tahash b. Makha b. ‘Ayfa b. Abqar b. ‘Ubayd b. al-Da‘a b. Hamdan b. Sanbar b. Yathribi b. Yahzan b. Yalhan b. Ar‘awa b. ‘Ayfa b. Dayshan b. ‘Isar b. Aqnad b. Ayham b. Muqsir b. Nahath b. Rizah b. Shamma b. Mizza b. ‘Aws b. ‘Arram b. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) Ibrahim (Abraham).
... There was a man from Tadmur whose patronymic (kunyah) was Abu Ya‘qub. He was one of the children of Israel who had become a Muslim, who had read in their books and become deeply learned. He said that Barukh b. Nariyya, a scribe from Urmiya, had established the lineage of Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan with him and had set it in his writings. It was well known among the learned men of the People of the Book and set down in their books. It was close to the names given above, and perhaps the difference between them was owing to the language, since these names had been transliterated from Hebrew.
Al-Harith- Muhammad b. Sa‘d: Hisham (al-Kalbi) recited to me the following line of verse, which was related to him by his father:
I belong to no tribe which brought me up but that in which the descendants of Qaydhar and al-Nabit took root.
By al-Nabit, he meant Nabt b. Isma‘il (Ishmael). 
... Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. al-Hamaysa‘ b. Ashub b. NABT B. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael).
OTHERS RELATE: Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. Umayn b. Shajab b. Tha‘alabah b. ‘Atr b. Yarbah b. Muhallam b. al-‘Awwam b. Muhtamil b. Ra‘imah b. al-‘Ayqan b. ‘Allah b. al-Shahdud b. al-Zarib b. ‘Abqar b. Ibrahim (Abraham) b. Isma‘il b. Yazan b. A‘waj b. al-Mut‘im b. al-Tamh b. al-Qasur b. ‘Anud b. Da‘da‘ b. Mahmud b. al-Za‘id b. Nadwan b. Atamah b. Daws b. Hisn b. al-Nizal b. al-Qumayr b. al-Mushajjir b. Mu‘damir b. Sayfi b. NABT B. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham), the Friend of the Compassionate.
STILL OTHERS: Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. Zayd b. Yaqdir b. Yaqdum b. Hamaysa‘ b. NABT B. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham).
OTHERS: Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. Hamaysa‘ b. Nabt b. Salman, who is Salaman, b. Hamal b. NABT B. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham).
OTHERS: Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. al-Muqawwam b. Nahur b. M Mishrah b. Yashjub b. Malik b. Ayman b. AL-NABIT B. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham). 
OTHERS: Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udd b. Udad b. al-Hamaysa‘ b. Ashub b. Sa‘d b. Yarbah b. Nadir b. Humayl b. Munahhim b. Lafath b. al-Sabuh b. Kinanah b. al-‘Awwam b. NABT B. QAYDHAR b. Isma‘il (Ishmael).
A certain genealogist told me that he had found that some Arab scholars had memorized FORTY ANCESTORS OF MA‘ADD AS FAR AS ISMA‘IL (Ishmael) in Arabic, quoting Arabic verses as evidence for this, and that he had collated the names they gave with what the People of the Book say and had found that the number agreed BUT THAT THE ACTUAL NAMES DIFFERED. He dictated these names to me and I wrote them down. They are as follows; Ma‘add b. ‘Adnan b. Udad b. Hamaysa‘ (Hamaysa‘ is Salman, who is Umayn) b. Hamayta‘ (who is Hamayda‘, who is al-Shajab) b. Salamn (who is Munjir Nabit, so called, he calimed, because he fed Arabs on milk and flour anjara, as the people lived well in his time ...) 
Nabit b. ‘Aws (he is Tha‘labah, to whom the Tha‘labis descent is traced back) b. Bura (who is Buz, who is ‘Atr al-‘Ata‘ir, the first person to institute the custom of the ‘atirah for the Arabs) b. Shuha (who is Sa‘d Rajab, the first person to institute the custom of the rajabiyyah for the Arabs) b. Ya‘mana (who is Qamwal, who is Yarbah al-Nasib, who lived in the time of Sulayman b. Dawud the prophet) b. Kasdana (who is Muhallam Dhu al-‘Ayn) b. Hazana (who is al-‘Awwam) b. Bildasa (who is al-Muhtamil) b. Badlana (who is Yidlaf, who is Ra‘imah) b. Tahba (who is Tahab who is al-‘Ayqan) b. Jahma (who is Jaham, who is ‘Allah) b. Mahsha (who is Tahash. who is al-Shahdud) b. Ma‘jala (who is Makha, who is al-Zarib Khatim al-Nar b. ‘Aqara (who is ‘Afa, who is ‘Abqar, THE FATHER OF THE JINN, TO WHOM THE GARDEN ABQAR IS ASCRIBED) b. ‘Aqara (who is ‘Aqir, who is Ibrahim Jami ‘al-Shaml. He was called Jami‘ al-Shaml (settler of affairs) because every fearful person felt safe in his reign; he returned every outcast, and he attempted to make peace between all men) b. Banda‘a (who is Da‘a, who is Isma‘il Dhu al-Matabikh (master of kitchens), who was so called because during his reign he established a house for guests in every town of Arabs) b. Abda‘i (who is ‘Ubayd, who is Yazan al-Ta‘‘an, the first man to fight with lances, which are ascribed to him) b. Hamada (who is Hamdan, who is Isma‘il Dhu al-A‘waj; al-A‘waj was his horse, and the A‘waji breed of horses is ascribed to him) b. Bashmani (who is Yashbin, who is al-Mut‘im fi al-Mahl) b. Bathrani (who is Bathram, who is al-Tamh) b. Bahrani (who is Yahzan, who is al-Qasur) b. Yalhani (who is Yalhan, who is al-‘Anud) b. Ra‘wani (who is Ra‘wa, who is al-Da‘da‘) b. ‘Aqara (who is ‘Aqir) b. Dasan (who is al-Za‘id) b. ‘Asar (who is ‘Asir, who is al-Naydawan Dhu al-Andiyah…) b. Qanadi (who is Qanar, who is Ayyamah) b. Thamar (who is Bahami, who is Daws al-‘Itq…) b. Muqsir (who is Maqasiri, who is Hisn; he is also called Nahath, who is al-Nizal) b. Zarih (who is Qumayr) b. Sammi who is Samma, who is al-Mujashshir ...
b. Marza- or, some say, Marhar- b. Sanfa (who is al-Samr, who is al-Safi ...) 
b. Ja‘tham (who is ‘Uram, who is al-Nabit, who is Qaydhar, the interpretation of Qaydhar, he said, is ‘ruler’, for he was the first of the descendants of Isma‘il to be king) b. Isma‘il (Ishmael), who was faithful to his promise, b. Ibrahim (Abraham), the Friend of the Compassionate b. Tarih (who is Azar) b. Nahur b. Saru‘ b. Arghawa b. Baligh (the interpretation of Baligh is ‘the divider’ as in Syriac; this is because it was he who divided the lands between the descendants of Adam, and he is Falij) b. ‘Abar b. Sha;ikh b. Arfakhshad b. Sam (Shem) b. Nuh (Noah) b. Lamk b. Mattushalakh b. Akhnukh (he is the prophet Idris) b. Yard (he is Yarid, in whose time idols were made) b. Mahla‘il b. Qaynan b. Anush b. Shithth (who is Hibatallah) b. Adam. Shith (Seth) was the successor of his father after Habil (Abel) was killed; his father said, ‘A gift of God (Hibatallah)’ in exchange for Habil,’ and his name was derived this. 
We have mentioned earlier in this work in a concise and abridged form a part what we have been able to discover of the accounts of Isma‘il (Ishmael) b. Ibrahim (Abraham) and his ancestors, male and female, back to Adam, and of the events of every age during this period of time, and we shall not repeat them here. Hisham b. Muhammad: The Arabs used to say, ‘The flea has bitten since our father Anush was born, and sin has been forbidden since our father Shithth was born.’ The Syriac name for Shithth is Shith." (The History of Al-Tabari, Volume VI, Muhammad At Mecca, translated and annotated by W. Montgomery Watt and M.V. McDonald [State University of New York Press, Albany, 1988], pp. 38-43; capital and underline emphasis ours)
Do notice the inherent contradictions of these traditions. First, none of the genealogical lists are uniform. Contradictions in the precise names and order of the names appear throughout these lists. Second, according to some traditions Ma‘add was a contemporary of the Lord Jesus. Yet, other traditions state that Ma‘add was a contemporary of Jeremiah and Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylon, men who lived six centuries before Christ was even born! Prophet Muhammad came from Kedar. 

The Kedar Tribe was already in Arabia (The Qedarites (also Kedarites/Cedarenes, Cedar/Kedar/Qedar, and Kingdom of Qedar) were a largely nomadic, ancient Arab and Semitic tribal confederation. Described as "the most organized of the Northern Arabian tribes", at the peak of its power in the 6th century BC it controlled a large region between the Mesopotamia and Hejaz.[1][2][3][4]
Biblical tradition holds that the Qedarites are named for Qedar, the second son of Ishmael, mentioned in the Bible's books of Genesis (25:13) and 1 Chronicles (1:29), where there are also frequent references to Qedar as a tribe.[2][5] The earliest extrabiblical inscriptions discovered by archaeologists that mention the Qedarites are from the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Spanning the 8th and 7th centuries BC, they list the names of Qedarite kings who revolted and were defeated in battle, as well as those who paid Assyrian monarchs tribute, including Zabibe, queen of the Arabs (šar-rat KUR.a-ri-bi).[6][7] There are also Aramaic and Old South Arabian inscriptions recalling the Qedarites, who further appear briefly in the writings of Classical Greek and Roman historians, such asHerodotusPliny the Elder, and Diodorus.


The Qedarites are among a number of North Arabian tribes whose interactions with Arameaen tribes beginning in the 8th century BC resulted in cultural exchanges between these two largeSemitic groups.[31] Early Arab tribal groups like the Qedarites spoke early Arab dialects, but as the Arabic alphabet had not yet been developed, they used the Aramaic alphabet to write.[31][32]"The tongue of Kedar" is used in rabbinical sources as a name for the Arabic language.[33]
Papponymy, the practice of naming boys after their grandfathers, was common among the Qedar.[34] Some Qedarites had Aramaic personal names (e.g. Hazael or Haza-el), while others had Arabic personal names (e.g. Gashmu and Zabibe).[32][35] Aramaic civilization and its peoples were gradually absorbed by the Arabs with Arabic dialects in LebanonPalestineSyria, and Iraq in particular exhibiting the huge influence of Aramaic.[31]


Religious worship among the Qedar, as was the case for most of the inhabitants of Arabia until the 4th century AD, was centered around a polytheistic system in which women figured prominently. Divine images of the gods and goddesses worshipped by the Qedar, as noted in Assyrian inscriptions, included representations of Atarsamain, Nuha, Ruda, Daa, Abirillu, and Atarquruma. The female guardian of these idols, usually the reigning queen, served as a priestess (apkallatu, in Assyrian texts) who communed with the other world.[36] As mentioned above, there is also evidence that the Qedar worshipped Al-lāt ("The Goddess"), to whom the inscription on a silver bowl from a king of Qedar is dedicated.[30] In the Babylonian Talmud, which was passed down orally for centuries before being transcribed c. 500 AD, in tractate Taanis (folio 5b), it is said that most Qedarites worshiped the same one god as the Jews and had a religion very close to Judaism and a few odd Qedarites worshiped pagan gods .[37]
 Neusner, 2006, p. 295.
It is unclear when the Qedarites ceased to exist as a separately defined confederation or people. Allies with the Nabataeans, it is likely that they were subsumed into the Nabataean state around the 2nd century AD[citation needed]. Arab genealogical scholars widely consider Ishmael to be an ancestral forefather of the Arab people, and assign great importance in their accounts to his first two sons (Nebaioth and Qedar), with the genealogy of Muhammad, the founder of Islam, alternately assigned to one or the other son, depending on the scholar.

The defeat and displacement of the people of Ma'ad seemed to be viewed by Pre-Islamic Arabs as a disastrous event, so that it was used as a proverbial measure in describing the horribleness of their later defeats.[18][19]

In Pre-Islamic Poetry[edit]

Ma'ad, unlike his father, was mentioned countless times by Pre-Islamic Arab poets across the whole Arabian Peninsula, including Ghassanid and Christian poets, even in the famous Seven Mu'allaqat.
From those poems, it can be seen that Ma'ad was venerated by Pre-Islamic Arabs, and for some reason, they believed that all the glories throughout the whole Arab history is considered nothing when compared to the glory of Ma'ad.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]
From some other poems, it appears that the nation of Ma'ad presented a large majority among Pre-Islamic Arabs.[30][31][32]

In Nabataean Inscriptions[edit]

Ma'ad was mentioned by name in the Namara inscription as a nation that was conquered by the Lakhmid king Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr, along with other Arab nation from North, Central-West and South Arabia.[33][34][35][36]
From some of the reports of about the relations between the Lakhmids and the nation of Ma'ad, it can be concluded that the kings of the Northern Arab kingdoms feared them and viewed them as mighty opponent because of their powerful war tactics, even when they conquered them, they treated their kings with high respect as important people, and gave them large conquered colonies to rule, as reported in the Namara inscription.[37] Such views are also supported by the Classical Arabic writings.[38][39]

In Roman-Byzantine Writings[edit]

The nation of Ma'ad was mentioned by the Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea (c. AD 500 – c. AD 565) in his historical record of wars in during his lifetime "Wars of Justinian".
He mentioned that a Saracen nation named "Maddeni" (Ma'ad) were subjects with the kingdom of the "Homeritae" (Himyarites), and that the Byzantine emperor Justinian sent a letter to theHimyarite king ordering him to assemble an army of Himyarite soldiers and from Ma'ad under the leadership of a king of the nation of Ma'ad named "Kaisus" (Qays) in order to attack the borders of the Sasanian Empire, and then approved the leader of Ma'ad as a king on the region.[40][41]


  1. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  2. Jump up^ Clans of Iraq, Abbas Al-Azzawi, Volume 1, Page 13
  3. Jump up^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir Volume 2, Page 187
  4. Jump up^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume 1, Page 118
  5. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 381
  6. Jump up^ The Historical Record of Ibn Khaldun, Vol. 2, Page: 229
  7. Jump up^ Nasab Quraysh (The Genealogy of Quraysh), Ibn Hazm, Page: 5
  8. Jump up^ The Historical Record of At-Tabari, Vol. 2, Page: 29
  9. Jump up^ Nihayat Al-Arab Fe Ma'rifat Ansab Al-Arab (Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs), Vol. 2, Page: 352
  10. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 379
  11. Jump up^ Ihsan Abbas, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Labeed ibn Rabi'a (1962-Kuwait), Page: 255
  12. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 379
  13. Jump up^ Tabaqat Ash-Shu'araa (The Ranks of Poets), Ibn Salam, Page: 5
  14. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 381
  15. Jump up^ The Historical Record of Ibn Khaldun, Vol. 2, Page: 299
  16. Jump up^ Tareekh Al-Umam Wa Al-Mulook (The History of Nations and Kings), Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Vol. 1, Page: 327
  17. Jump up^ The Dictionary of CountriesYaqut Al-Hamawi, Vol. 3, Pages: 377-380
  18. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 381
  19. Jump up^ The Historical and Geographical Record of Abu Ubayd Al-Bakri, Vol. 1, Page: 57
  20. Jump up^ Ignác Goldziher - Muhammedanische Studien 1, Page: 91
  21. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 382-383
  22. Jump up^ Ahmad Az-Zain & Mahmood Abu Al-Wafa, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of the people of the tribe of Huthayl (1965-Cairo), Vol. 1, Page: 37
  23. Jump up^ Sharh Al-Mu'allqat As-Sab'a, Az-Zauzani, Page: 125
  24. Jump up^ kitab Al-Aghani (The Book of Songs), Al-Asfahani, Vol. 11, Pages: 11-58-100-150
  25. Jump up^ Ali Hasan Fa'ur, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Zuhair Ibn Abi Salam (1988), Page: 106
  26. Jump up^ Al-Mufdhaliyyat (The Compositions of Al-Mufdhaly), Pages: 47-293
  27. Jump up^ Al-Eqd Al-Fareed, Ibn Abd Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Vol. 1, Page: 309
  28. Jump up^ Ansab Al-Ashraf (Genealogies of Honorable People), Ahmad Ibn Yahya Al-Balatheri, Vol. 1, Page: 19
  29. Jump up^ Sharh Ash'ar Al-Huthaliyyeen (The Explanation of the poems of the people of the tribe of "Huthayl"), Abu Sa'eed As-Sukkari, Vol. 1, Page: 88
  30. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 384
  31. Jump up^ Abd A. Mahna, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Hassan Ibn Thabet (1994), Page:44
  32. Jump up^ Abs Ar-Rahman Al-Barqouqi, Explanation of the "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Hassan Ibn Thabet (1929), Page: 398
  33. Jump up^ James A. Bellamy, A New Reading of the Namara Inscription, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1985), Pages:31-48
  34. Jump up^ Saad D. Abulhab, DeArabizing Arabia: Tracing Western Scholarship on the History of the Arabs and Arabic Language and Script, Pages: 87-156
  35. Jump up^ Jan Retso, Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads (2003), RoutledgeCurzon publications, Page: 467
  36. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 381
  37. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 386
  38. Jump up^ kitab Al-Aghani (The Book of Songs), Al-Asfahani, Vol. 2, Pages: 22
  39. Jump up^ Murooj Ath-Thahab Wa Jawhar Al-Ma'adin, Abu Al-Hasan Ibn Ali Al-Mas'udi, Vol. 1, Page: 173
  40. Jump up^ H.B Dewing, Procopius's History of Wars, Page: 181
  41. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 386-387


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adnan (Arabicعدنان‎) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central-Western Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of southern and south eastern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.[1]


According to tradition, Adnan is the father of a group of the Ishmaelite Arabs who inhabited West and Northern Arabia. Adnan is believed by Arab genealogies to be the father of many Ishmaelitetribes along the Western coast of Arabia, Northern Arabia and Iraq.[2][3][4][5]
Many family trees have been presented for Adnan, which did not agree about the number of ancestors between Ishmael and Adnan but agreed perfectly about the names and number of the ancestors between Adnan and the Prophet Muhammad.[6][7]
The overwhelming majority of traditions and Muslim scholars state that Adnan is a descendant of Kedar the son of Ishmael,[8][9][10][11][12] except for Ibn Ishaq who claimed that Adnan was a descendant of Nebaioth,[13] this confusion of Ibn Ishaq can be due to the case of one of the descendants of Kedar was named "Nebaioth".[14]
Most of Muslim scholars refused any attempt to recite the ancestors between Adnan to Ishmael, and condemned some other scholars such as Ibn Ishaq for doing it.[15][16][17][18][19]

In Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

Adnan was mentioned in various Pre-Islamic poems, such as the Pre-Islamic poets: "Lubayb Ibn Rabi'a" and "Abbas Ibn Mirdas".[20]
Adnan has been viewed by Pre-Islamic Arabs as an honorable father among the fathers of Arab tribes, and they used this ancestry to boast against other Qahtani tribes who were a minority among the Adnanites.[21]
"Layla Bent Lukayz", a Pre-Islamic female poet, was captured by a Persian king and forced to marry him, so she composed a poem designated to other Arab tribes, asking for their help and reminding that she and them all belong to Adnan, which makes it a duty for them to rescue her.[22]
In other poems such as the ones composed by the Pre-Islamic poet "Qumma'a Ibn Ilias", it appears that Arabs considered it as a "Honor" to be a descendant of Adnan, and for some reason they appear to have been proud of it.[23]

In North Arabian Inscriptions[edit]

The name of Adnan was found many times in various Thamudic inscriptions, but it was only mentioned as a persom without telling so much about him. While in some Nabataean inscriptions, Adnan seem to have holding some kind of importance or veneration, so that some of Nabataean people were named after him as "Abd Adnon" (The Servant/Slave of Adnan). this statement doesn't indicate that he was worshiped, but just considered as an honorable figure, exactly as some other Arabs called some of their sons as "servants" of their fore-fathers.[24][25][26][27]


Adnan died after Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Babylon, after that his son Ma'ad moved away to the region of Central-Western Hijaz after the destruction of the Qedarite kingdom nearMesopotamia, and the remaining Qedarite Arabs there were displaced from their lands and forced to live in Al-Anbar province and the on the banks of the Euphratesriver under the rule of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.[28][29][30][31]

Descent from Adnan to Muhammad[edit]

According to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad was descended from Adnan. "The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the Jazeera and to have been the intraline ancestors of Muhammad."[32]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Charles Sanford Terry (1911). A Short History of Europe, From the fall of the Roman empire to the fall of the Eastern empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1112467356. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  2. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  3. Jump up^ Clans of Iraq, Abbas Al-Azzawi, Volume 1, Page 13
  4. Jump up^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir Volume 2, Page 187
  5. Jump up^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume 1, Page 118
  6. Jump up^ Al-Fusool Fe Sirat Ar-Rasul, Page 87
  7. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 60
  8. Jump up^ Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen, Dr.Sa'eed Ibn Wahaf Al-Qahtani, Volume: 2, Pages: 14-17
  9. Jump up^ Qala'ed Al-Joman, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume: 1, Page: 31
  10. Jump up^ Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Volume: 1, Page:118
  11. Jump up^ Al-Isra'eliyyat Wa Al-Mawdu'at Fe Kutub At-Tafsir, Dr.Mohammad Abu Shaba, Page 259
  12. Jump up^ The Beginning and the EndIbn Kathir, Volume 3, Page 203
  13. Jump up^ Siratu Rasulillah, Volume 1, Page 1
  14. Jump up^ Tareekh At-Tabari, Page 517
  15. Jump up^ Uyoon Al-Athar, Volume 1, Page 33
  16. Jump up^ The Beginning and the End, Ibn Kathir, Part 23, Page 246
  17. Jump up^ Qala'ed Al-Juman, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Page 14
  18. Jump up^ As-Sira An-Nabaweyya, Ibn Kathir, Part 1, Page 75
  19. Jump up^ The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes, Abd al-Rahman al-Mughiri, Volume 1, Page 58
  20. Jump up^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Prof. Jawwad Ali, Volume: 1, Page: 393
  21. Jump up^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Prof. Jawwad Ali, Volume: 1, Page: 372
  22. Jump up^ The Arab Female Poets during the "Jahiliyyah" and Islamic eras, Bashir Yamut Al-Bayrouti, 1934, Page: 33
  23. Jump up^ A'lam An-Nobouwwah, Abu Al-Hasan Al-Maroudi, Page: 215
  24. Jump up^ Mission des PP. Jaussen et Savignac en Arabie "Hedjaz" (1910), Vol. 38, Page: 328
  25. Jump up^ G. Strenziak, Die Genealogle der Nordaraber nach Ibn Al-Kalbi, (Koln-1953), Vol. 1, Page: 210
  26. Jump up^ Hardings, Some Thamudic Inscriptions (Leiden-1952)
  27. Jump up^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Page: 380
  28. Jump up^ The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam, Jawwad Ali, Volume 5, Pages:160-161
  29. Jump up^ The History of Nations and Kings, Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Volume: 1, Page: 327
  30. Jump up^ The Organized History of Nations, Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi, Volume: 1, Page: 408
  31. Jump up^ The Dictionary of CountriesYaqut Al-Hamawi, Volume: 3, Pages: 377-380
  32. Jump up^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [First published 1885]. A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together With the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Retrieved 2010-07-24.

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